We hope you find our glossary helpful. If you require further assistance, don’t hesitate to contact our team for expert advice.
Annular: Type of nail used to securely fix pallet, case and crate components together.
Anti-Blu: Chemical treatment used to prevent bacterial growth on unseasoned timber.
APHIS: Animal, Plant & Health Protection Service (USA – USDA).
APME: European Association of Plastics Manufacturers responsible for administration of CP pallets.
AQIS: Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service
AQSIQ: Chinese General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine.
Baseboard: A pallet board on the bottom of a pallet.
Batten: Alternative term for either bearer, stringer or board.
Bearer: The component used in two-way entry pallets to which top and baseboards are nailed.
Block: Component used in four-way pallets and attached to deck assembly and baseboards.
Block Stacking: A term relating to loaded pallets being stacked on top of one another.
Blue pallet: Term used to describe a pool pallet as controlled by CHEP.
Blue stain: Discolouration of softwood (normally pine) due to bacterial growth & moisture content.
Board: Timber component used in pallet and/or case manufacture.
Bottom Deck: Term describing construction of the base of the pallet.
Brand: Mark placed on timber packaging by a process of heat (branding).
BREPAL: The UK administrative body responsible for Euro-Pallets production and quality.
BS: British Standard as issued by the British Standards Institute.
BSI: British Standards Institute
Butt-joint: Definition of two boards nailed in tandem (next to one another) without space in-between the components.
Cantilever: Where a wing or overhang is created by the inset of block components down the length of the stringer – specific to four way entry pallets.
Case: A timber box with close boarded base, sides and lid.
CEN: European Standards organization.
Chamfer: Planed section of a component – designed to ease handling and reduce damage (Mitre).
CHEP: Commonwealth Handling Equipment Pool
Chep: A pallet pool operating in a number of countries.
Clench: Type of nailing process used in the manufacture of deck assemblies – specific to four way entry pallets.
Close-boarded: A pallet or deck which has one or more surfaces constructed without spaces.
Collar: See pallet collar.
Composite: Wood based man made material used in the construction of blocks for four way entry pallets (composite blocks).
Coniferous: Forestry that is the source of softwood materials.
CP: A range of exchangeable pallets designed for use in the chemical and plastic markets.
CPC: Canadian Pallet Council.
CPI: Chemical Pressure Impregnation (tanalisation).
Crate: A timber box with open boarded base, sides and sometimes lid.
Cruciform: Special baseboard construction on four way pallets to aid roller conveyor handling and increase durability.
DB: De-barked timber.
Deciduous timber: Hardwood.
Deck: Sub assembly comprising of top boards and stringers for a four way entry pallet.
Deflection: The term used to describe the level timber (or a pallet) bends over a given span when under load.
Desiccant: A hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in packing cases.
DIN: German Standards Body
Double Tongue: A hinge for a pallet collar designed to allow location of the collar to both a base and upper pallet (block stacking).
Dricon: Fire retardant timber treatment.
Dunnage: A loose piece of timber positioned under a unit load to aid fork truck access.
Dusseldorfer: German pallet of 800 x 600mm dimensions using metal block components – primarily for FMCG markets.
Dynamic load: Term used to describe pallets which are loaded and stacked.
EPAL: A major European body administering the 1200 x 800mm Euro-Pallet production & quality in most European countries.
EPP: European Pallet Pool.
Euro: Shortened term for 1200 x 800 mm Euro-pallet (UIC 435-2).
Euro-Pallet: A specific design of four way entry pallet of 1200 x 800mm standard specification in Europe (UIC435-2).
FEFPEB: The European Trade Association for manufacturers of timber packaging.
Fifths: A quality level relating to high quality, kiln dried, Scandinavian softwood (Scandinavian 5ths/V).
Fillet: Infill component used on base of two way and four way pallets – as seen on some APME CP9 pallets.
FLT: Fork Lift Truck
Forestry Commission: UK government body responsible for the regulation of forestry.
Four hinged: Description of a standard style of pallet collar.
Four Way Entry: Pallet normally constructed with blocks that provides truck accessibility on all four sides.
Fumigation: Process of gas treatment used to ensure short-term pest control of timber.
GMA: Grocery Manufacturers Association (USA) and a term associated with main pallet specification used in the USA, also known as 40” x 48” partial four way.
Hardwood: Timber sourced from deciduous forestry (board leaved).
Helical: Type of nail that has a thread which spiral shaped.
HGS: Home grown softwood.
HPE: German Timber Packaging Association
HT: Heat Treatment
Humidity: A term sometimes used to express the level of moisture held within timber.
Inter-stacked: Term used to described nesting of pallets normally for delivery to reduce space requirements.
Inset: Term describing a wing or overhanging component.
IPP Logipal: European pallet pool provider.
IPPC: International Plant Protection Convention
ISPM15: Internationally recognised heat treatment standard (sometimes referred to as HT 56/30).
ISO: International Standards Organisation.
KD: Kiln dried.
KD Form: Knock down form pallets – specific to export markets where shipment costs prohibit stock being manufactured other than at destination and therefore old components are shipped that can be later manufactured.
Kit Form: See KD Form.
Lid: Term used to describe a single deck or section of sheet material used on top of a palletised load.
Liner: Term used to describe type of internal covering provided in packing case.
Long Board: Term used to describe 1000 x 1200 mm four way entry, perimeter based pallets with 1200 mm long top deck boards – ‘used pallet trade – slang’.
LPR: A pool of pallets operating in Europe and based in France and red in colour (La Palette Rouge).
Mb: Methyl Bromide treatment.
MC: Moisture content.
Methyl Bromide: Gas used in fumigation process (Mb)
Mibant: Nail strength test method – USA origin.
Mitre: Term describing a cut component usually 45 degrees or a pallet corner.
NAPD: National Association of Pallet Distributors.
NAPPO: North American Plant Protection Organisation.
Nesting/Nested: See inter-stacked.
Non-reversible: A timber pallet which has two or more bottom deck boards that run in one direction or overlap one another.
Notch: Portion of bearer component removed from side of two way pallet, for example to allow access for fork-truck blades – as used on USA GMA type pallet or Yankee Pallet.
Open boarded: A pallet or deck which has one or more of its surfaces constructed with spaces.
OSB: Oriented strand board or Sterling board, a sheet material produced from timber strands/flakes.
Pallet Collar: A portable timber sleeve that is located around the outer perimeter edge of the pallet deck – usually constructed with steel hinges at each corner.
Pallet rental: A service offered by European Pallet pool providers such as: Chep, LPR & IPP Logipal.
Partial Four Way: Term describing a notched bearer pallet – typically found on a USA standard pallet known as a GMA.
PDS: The world’s leading timber pallet design software.
Perimeter Base: A form of pallet construction which allows for loads to be safely stacked and increases durability.
Pentachloraphenate: Timber treatment widely used until 1990 to prevent bacteria growth in unseasoned timber (also known as PCP).
Phytosanitary: Plant health.
Plant Health Department: The regulatory body within each country that is responsible for control of plant pests (ISPM15).
PMP: Portuguese Maritime Pine.
PSE: Term used for machined timber meaning ‘planed with square edge’ or ‘planed, square and even’.
PTG: Planed, Tongue & Grooved Timber.
Raggle board: A component produced with rounded cut outs (scalloped) to aid transport of cylindrical items.
Red pallet: Term used to describe a pool pallet as controlled by LPR.
Redwood: Kiln dried Scandinavian pine and fir.
Reversible: A type of pallet design where the construction of the top mirrors that of the base.
Rockhi: Nail strength test method – origin Europe.
RS: Rough sawn.
Runner: Term used for bearer.
Seconds: 2nd grade material, softwood components with a high proportion of bark at it’s edges.
Scalloped: Rounded cut outs as found on raggle boards.
Seasoned: A term referring to dried or treated timber.
Shaw Pallet: The best source for all your timber packaging requirements.
Shelf: A timber structure designed to sit within beam racking that provides support to pallets and loose products which require to be stored.
Short board: Term used to describe a 1200 x 1000 mm UK Standard pallet with 1000 mm top deck boards.
Sinesto B: Anti-stain treatment for unseasoned timber.
Single board: Term used for a pallet collar which is constructed with one single component per side.
Single tongue: Commonly used hinge on pallet collar, where block stacking of pallets is not required.
Single sided: A timber pallet which has no base or bottom deck boards.
Six hinged: Description of a pallet collar that will fold in to the size of its longest component (concertinaing).
Sixths: A quality level relating to kiln dried, packaging grade Scandinavian softwood (Scandinavian 6ths/VI).
Skid: Term used for a bearer or dunnage.
Slave: A term used to describe a pallet (slave pallet) which is located under a palletised load in order to assist it strength within racking or to provide support in conveyor systems and/or palletisers.
Sling: Device used to handle pallets by crane – primarily in shipping/export use.
Softwood: Term relating to timber sourced from coniferous forestry.
SPF: Term used within the UK to describe a mixture of softwood species typically used in the packaging sector (Spruce/Pine/Fir).
Static load: A single pallet with load – floor based.
Stencil: Mark placed on timber packaging via the use of ink or paint (stencilling).
Stillage: A small two way entry pallet of lightweight construction usually designed to carry for single trip deliveries.
Stringer: The component used to fasten top boards to the construction of a four way entry pallet deck. In USA this term refers to the UK equivalent of bearer/runner.
Sulfuryl Fluoride: Gas used in fumigation process
Support Bar: Usually made of steel and sometimes referred to as ‘top hats’ these are steel sections normally 75-100 mm in width that sit between racking beams and below palletised loads to provide support, thereby preventing excessive deflection levels/pallet breakage in the case of weak pallets.
SYPAL: French Timber Packaging Association
Tanalith: A long-term chemical pressure treatment designed to extend timber lifespan through the prevention of decay (tanalisation).
Three legger: Term for a four way entry non-reversible pallet with 3 baseboards – ‘used pallet trade – slang’.
Timcon: The UK Timber Packaging and Pallet Confederation.
Two board: Term used for a pallet collar which is constructed with two components per side.
Top Deck: The description of the upper most components of a normal pallet’s construction.
Two Way Entry: Pallet constructed with bearers and only accessible by lift-truck on two sides.
UK Chep Pallet: The specification of the 1200 x 1000mm pallet used in the UK Chep pallet pool.
UK Standard: A term used to describe a 1200 x 1000 mm four way entry perimeter based pallet.
UKWPMMP: UK wood packaging material marking programme – membership of which implies that a company is an approved provider of ISPM15 compliant timber packaging.
Unseasoned: Timber which is not dried or treated.
VCI Paper: Moisture and rust inhibiting (anti-rust) paper used in packing cases.
VMF: type of pallet design favoured by French glass bottle manufacturers (1000 x 1200 mm – four way entry).
Wedge: Triangular section of timber.
Whitewood: Kiln dried Scandinavian spruce.
Wing: An overhang of a top deck or baseboard in relation to its location to the component it is nailed to. Wolmanit: Fire retardant timber treatment.
WTO: World Trade Organisation.
XC: Cross cut (timber).
Yankee: Term used to describe a USA GMA pallet.
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